general news

Demand for prebiotics continues even as FDA wrestles with fibre definition

06 Oct 2017 – By Hank Shultz

Despite uncertainty surrounding the precise definition of fiber, demand for prebiotic ingredients is booming, according to one ingredient supplier.

Nutritional Outlook, AIDP Expands Digestive-Health Portfolio with Anagenix’s Kiwifruit Ingredients

17 April 2017 – By Jennifer Grebow

Ingredients distributor AIDP Inc. (City of Industry, CA) is expanding its digestive-health portfolio thanks to a distribution deal with New Zealand ingredients company Anagenix (Wellington, New Zealand). Anagenix specializes in New Zealand-grown kiwifruit-based ingredients that support digestive health.

One of those ingredients is Actazin®, a cold-pressed powdered kiwifruit concentrate that “is a natural source of prebiotics, fiber, enzymes, and polyphenols to support bowel function in a gentler way than harsh laxatives,” AIDP says. “The kiwi-unique enzyme actinadin found in Actazin® assists protein digesting, helping people avoid the ‘overfull’ feeling after a protein-rich meal.”

Nutrition Insight, AIDP Expands Digestive Health and “Healthy Aging” Ingredients Portfolio

03 April 2017

Functional ingredients manufacturer AIDP has signed an exclusive license and distribution agreement with agrotechnology company Anagenix to market its kiwifruit-based ingredients, Actazin® and Livaux®. Anagenix is a New Zealand-based company specializing in the discovery of natural bioactives. Actazin® is a cold-pressed powdered kiwi fruit concentrate that is a natural source of prebiotics, fiber, enzymes and polyphenols and may support bowel function.

According to the company, the kiwi-unique enzyme actinadin found in Actazin® assists the protein digestion and helps avoid the “overfull” feeling after a protein-rich meal. It is made from Non-GMO Project verified green kiwifruit, sourced in New Zealand. The locally sourced kiwifruit are processed using proprietary technology to ensure retention of the key nutrients and bioactives. Actazin® is gluten-free, free of preservatives and added sugar, and is ideal for green food blends and digestive health formulas.

Nutraceuticals World, AIDP Expands Digestive Health Portfolio

29 March 2017

AIDP, City of Industry, CA, has signed an exclusive license and distribution agreement with Anagenix to market its kiwifruit-based ingredients, Actazin® and Livaux®. Anagenix is a New Zealand-based company specializing in the scientific discovery of natural bioactives which satisfy consumers health and wellness needs.

Actazin® is a cold-pressed powdered kiwi fruit concentrate that is a natural source of prebiotics, fiber, enzymes and polyphenols to support bowl function in a gentler way than harsh laxatives. The kiwi-unique enzyme actinadin found in Actazin® assists protein digesting, helping people avoid the “overfull” feeling after a protein-rich meal. It is made from Non-GMO Project Verified green kiwifruit, sourced in New Zealand. The locally sourced kiwifruit are gently processed using proprietary technology to ensure retention of the key nutrients and bioactives. Actazin® is gluten-free, free of preservatives and added sugar. It is ideal for green food blends, digestive health formulas and more.

Cambridge Commodities launches Actazin® and Livaux® to the European digestive health and wellness market

16 May 2016 – Nutraceutical Business Review

Anagenix utilise the bioactives found in fruit and plants to make natural and effective products for health and wellness

Nutritional ingredient supplier Cambridge Commodities has announced it is the exclusive European distributor of Anagenix’s Actazin® and Livaux®.

Anagenix utilises the bioactives found in fruit and plants to make natural and effective products for health and wellness, with an initial focus on digestive health.

Cambridge Commodities Launch New Digestive Health Products

12 May 2016 – Food Ingredients First, by Liesbeth Thijssen

Cambridge Commodities have announced that it is the exclusive European distributor of Anagenix’s Actazin® and Livaux®, aimed at improving gut health. Anagenix create products based on bioactives contained in fruit and plants for the purpose of promoting health and wellness. Elouan Morel, European sales manager at Cambridge Commodities said: “We are thrilled to be able to bring a product to Europe that is clinically proven and backed up by research.”

Livaux®, a non GMO, New Zealand SunGold kiwifruit powder, is described as restoring F. prau for microbiome balance. The company states that the product: “is proven to increase levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prau) in the gut of functionally constipated individuals and improve healthy bowel frequency. Reduced levels of F.prau have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as IBS and IBD.” The freeze dried powder is suitable for use in tablet or capsule form.

Actazin® Verified by Non-GMO Project

18 August 2015 – Nutraceuticals World

Actazin®, a digestive health ingredient from Anagenix (Wellington, New Zealand) and Stratum Nutrition (Saint Charles, MO), has received certification from the Non-GMO Project as being Non-GMO Project Verified.

The Non-GMO Project, an independent, non-profit organization is the world’s foremost organization committed to preserving and building sources of non-GMO products, educating consumers, and providing independent, 3rd party verification that an ingredient is non-GMO. The non-GMO status of Actazin®, an ingredient derived from green kiwifruit, increases its opportunities to be included in non-GMO supplements and functional foods, according to the companies.

Actazin® green kiwifruit extract verified by non-gmo project

17 August 2015 – by nutraingredients-usa.com

Actazin®, a digestive health ingredient derived from green kiwifruit, has received certification from the Non-GMO Project as being Non-GMO Project Verified.

science news

Nutritional Benefits of Kiwifruit. Amsterdam

Ansell J, et al, Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 1-350, 2013

Kiwifruit have long been known as a decorative and exotic fruit that can be used in desserts and fresh fruit collations. What is less well known is that kiwifruit contain a range of constituents with valuable health-beneficial properties. These range from high levels of high-impact vitamin C to enzymes that assist with digestion, and polysaccharides that promote gut health.

Modification of the colonic microbiota

Ansell,J, Parkar,S, Paturi,G, Rosendale,D, Blatchford,P, Adv Food Nutr Res 68:205-217, 2013

It is becoming clear that the ecology and functionality of the human gut microbiota are extremely diverse and complex. The microbiota have coevolved with us metabolically to live symbiotically and to share the workload of extracting nutrients and energy from the diet. It is also clear that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals is good for general health and gut health and that this is due partly to the phytochemicals and partly to the nondigestible carbohydrates (or dietary fiber) that are present in plants. Kiwifruit contain polyphenolics and nondigestible carbohydrates in the form of pectic, hemicellulosic, and cellulosic polysaccharides, all of which can be degraded by various members of the gut microbiota and result in beneficial effects. This chapter summarizes how kiwifruit act to modify the colonic microbiota and the resultant beneficial effects on human health.

In vitro characterisation of the fermentation pro le and prebiotic capacity of gold- eshed kiwifruit

Blatchford,P, Bentley-Hewitt,KL, Stoklosinski,H, McGhie,T, Gearry,R, Gibson,G, Ansell,J, Benef Microbes 6:829-839, 2015

A new Actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Zesy002’ was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. Digested Zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro pH-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. Results indicated a substantial shift in the composition of bacteria within the gut models caused by kiwifruit supplementation. Zesy002 supplemented microbiota had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. after 48 h of fermentation compared with the start of the fermentation. Organic acids from kiwifruit were able to endure simulated gastrointestinal digestion and were detectable in the first 10 h of fermentation. The fermentable carbohydrates were converted to beneficial organic acids with a particular predilection for propionate production, corresponding with the rise in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. These results support the claim that Zesy002 kiwifruit non-digestible fractions can effect favourable changes to the human colonic microbial community and primary metabolites, and demonstrate a hitherto unknown effect of Zesy002 on colonic microbiota under in vitro conditions.

Influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats

Paturi,G, Butts,CA, Bentley-Hewitt,KL, Ansell,J, J Food Sci 79:H1611-H1620, 2014

The effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. Green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. Growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. A significant increase in cecal Lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at week 4. At week 6, green and gold kiwifruit diets assisted in improving colonic barrier function by upregulating the expression of mucin (MUC)-2, MUC3, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or trefoil factor-3 genes. Gold kiwifruit consumption increased the colonic goblet cells per crypt at week 6. Significant negative correlations between E. coli and ?-defensin 1 and TLR4 expression were observed. Consuming green and gold kiwifruit for 6 wk significantly altered the biomarkers of large bowel health; indicating that regularly consuming kiwifruit helps attain optimal digestive health

Kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Ansell,J, Butts,CA, Paturi,G, Eady,SL, Wallace,AJ, Hedderley,D, Gearry,RB, Nutr Res 35:401- 408, 2015

The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin® and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals.

Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increase Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial

Blatchford,P, Stoklosinski,H, Eady,SL, Wallace,AJ, Butts,CA, Gearry,R, Gibson,G, Ansell,J,Journal of Nutritional Science, 6 (e52): 1-10, 2017

This study investigated the impact of Actazin® green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux® (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules. A total of thirty-two taxa were measured at greater than 1 % abundance in at least one sample, ten of which differed significantly between the baseline healthy and FC groups. Specifically, Bacteroidales and Roseburia spp. were significantly more abundant (P < 0·05) in the healthy group and taxa including Ruminococcaceae, Dorea spp. and Akkermansia spp. were significantly more abundant (P < 0·05) in the FC group. In the FC group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance significantly increased (P = 0·024) from 3·4 to 7·0 % following Livaux® supplementation, with eight of the nine participants showing a net increase. Lower proportions of F. prausnitzii are often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. The discovery that Livaux® supplementation increased F. prausnitzii abundance offers a potential strategy for improving gut microbiota composition, as F. prausnitzii is a butyrate producer and has also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in many studies.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: from microbiology to diagnostics and prognostics

Lopez-Siles,M, Duncan,SH, Garcia-Gil,LJ, Martinez- Medina,M, ISME J 11:841-852, 2017

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal bacterium, ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. This species is a functionally important member of the microbiota and studies suggest it has an impact on the physiology and health of the host. F. prausnitzii is the only identified species in the genus Faecalibacterium, but a recent study clustered strains of this species in two different phylogroups.

Gut microbiome: the peacekeepers

Velasquez-Mano ,M, Nature 518:S3-S11, 2015

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant bacteria in the healthy human microbiota. F. prausnitzii depletion has been reported in several intestinal disorders, and more consistently in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. Despite its importance in human health, only few microbiological studies have been performed to isolate novel F. prausnitzii strains in order to better understand the biodiversity and physiological diversity of this beneficial commensal species. In this study, we described a protocol to isolate novel F. prausnitzii strains from feces of healthy volunteers as well as a deep molecular and metabolic characterization of these isolated strains.

Functional metabolic map of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bene cial human gut microbe

Heinken,A, Khan,MT, Paglia,G, Rodionov,DA, Harmsen,HJ, Thiele,I,J Bacteriol 196:3289-3302, 2014

The human gut microbiota plays a central role in human well-being and disease. In this study, we present an integrated, iterative approach of computational modeling, in vitro experiments, metabolomics, and genomic analysis to accelerate the identification of metabolic capabilities for poorly characterized (anaerobic) microorganisms. We demonstrate this approach for the beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165. We generated an automated draft reconstruction, which we curated against the limited biochemical data. This reconstruction modeling was used to develop in silico and in vitro a chemically defined medium (CDM), which was validated experimentally.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

Miquel,S, Martin,R, Rossi,O, Bermudez-Humaran,LG, Chatel,JM, Sokol,H, Thomas,M, Wells,JM, Langella,P,Curr Opin Microbiol 16:255-261, 2013

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii prevents physiological damages in a chronic low-grade in ammation murine model

Martin,R, Miquel,S, Chain,F, Natividad,JM, Jury,J, Lu,J, Sokol,H, Theodorou,V, Bercik,P, Verdu,EF, Langella,P, Bermudez-Humaran,LG, BMC Microbiol 15:67 (12 pages), 2015

The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 10(13)-10(14) microorganisms. The importance of this intestinal microbiota is highlighted when a disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium appears (a phenomenon called dysbiosis) leading to an illness status, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Indeed, the reduction of the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (one of the most prevalent intestinal bacterial species in healthy adults) has been correlated with several diseases, including IBD, and most importantly, it has been shown that this bacterium has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in pre-clinical models of colitis.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii treatment improves hepatic health and reduces adipose tissue in ammation in high-fat fed mice

Munukka,E, Rintala,A, Toivonen,R, Nylund,M, Yang,B, Takanen,A, Hanninen,A, Vuopio,J, Huovinen,P, Jalkanen,S, Pekkala,S,ISME J Apr 4. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2017.24. Epub ahead of print.: 2017

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is considered as one of the most important bacterial indicators of a healthy gut. We studied the effects of oral F. prausnitzii treatment on high-fat fed mice. Compared to the high-fat control mice, F. prausnitzii-treated mice had lower hepatic fat content, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and increased fatty acid oxidation and adiponectin signaling in liver. Hepatic lipidomic analyses revealed decreases in several species of triacylglycerols, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Adiponectin expression was increased in the visceral adipose tissue, and the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were more insulin sensitive and less inflamed in F. prausnitzii-treated mice. Further, F. prausnitzii treatment increased muscle mass that may be linked to enhanced mitochondrial respiration, modified gut microbiota composition and improved intestinal integrity. Our findings show that F. prausnitzii treatment improves hepatic health, and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in mice and warrant the need for further studies to discover its therapeutic potential.

Your Microbes at Work: Fiber Fermenters Keep Us Healthy

Nature 518, S9, 2015

The gut houses trillions of microbes. They eat what you eat. Many specialize in fermenting the soluble fiber in legumes, grains, fruits and vegetables. Certain microbial species are adept at colonizing the mucous layer of the gut. Mucus contains antimicrobial substances that keep the microbiota at a slight distance.

Feed your Tregs more fibre

Bollrath,J, Powrie,F,Science 341:463-464, 2013

The human intestine harbors up to 1011 bacteria per gram ofintestinal content, comprising over 500 different species (1) that have coevolvedwith their hosts in a mutually beneficial relationship.
These bacterial communities promote human health through effects on nutrition and immune system development and function, changing in distinct ways over time and in different disease states.

Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host- derived substrates for growth

Lopez-Siles,M, Khan,TM, Duncan,SH, Harmsen,HJ, Garcia-Gil,LJ, Flint,HJ,Appl Environ Microbiol 78:420-428, 2012

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects.

Oxidative stress

Sies,H, Berndt,C, Jones,DP,Annu Rev Biochem Doi: 10.1146/annurev- biochem-061516-045037. Epub ahead of print.: 2017

Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties.

Characterisation of the fermentation of non-digestible kiwifruit compounds by human colonic microbiota

Blatchford, P,PhD Dissertation, University of Reading (UK), 2015

A new Actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Zesy002’ was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. Digested Zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro pH-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. Results indicated a substantial shift in the composition of bacteria within the gut models caused by kiwifruit supplementation.

Effect of inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifdobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Ramirez-Farias,C, Slezak,K, Fuller,Z, Duncan,A, Holtrop,G, Louis,P,Br J Nutr 101:541-550, 2009

Prebiotics are food ingredients that improve health by modulating the colonic microbiota. The bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic inulin is well established; however, it remains unclear which species of Bifidobacterium are stimulated in vivo and whether bacterial groups other than lactic acid bacteria are affected by inulin consumption.